This is the formal removal of an noncitizen from the United States when they have been found removable for violating the immigration laws. An immigration judge orders deportation without imposing or contemplating any punishment. Before April 1997, deportation and exclusion were separate removal procedures. The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 consolidated these procedures. After April 1, 1997, noncitizens in and admitted to the United States may be subject to removal based on deportability. Now called “removal,” this function is managed by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.